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Journal of the Korean Society of Pediatric Nephrology 2010;14(2): 111-119. doi: https://doi.org/10.3339/jkspn.2010.14.2.111
체액의 수분 및 나트륨 균형
연세대학교 의과대학 소아과학교실
Water and Sodium Balance of Body Fluid
Ji-Hong Kim
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Yonsei University
Received: October 10, 2010;  Revised: October 11, 2010.  Accepted: October 18, 2010.
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The maintenance of the osmolality of body fluids within a very narrow physiologic range is possible by water balance mechanisms that control the intake and excretion of water. Main factors of this process are the thirst and antidiuretic hormon arginine vasopressin (AVP), secretion regulated by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus. Body water is the primary determinant of the osmolality of the extracellular fluid (ECF), disorders of body water homeostasis can be divided into hypo-osmolar disorders, in which there is an excess of body water relative to body solute, and hyperosmolar disorders, in which there is a deficiency of body water relative to body solute. The sodium is the predominant cation in ECF and the volume of ECF is directly proportional to the content of sodium in the body. Disorders of sodium balance, therefore, may be viewed as disorders of ECF volume. This reviews addresses the regulatory mechanisms underlying water and sodium metabolism, the two major determinants of body fluid homeostasis for a good understanding of the pathophysiology and proper management of disorders with disruption of water and sodium balance.
Key words: Water balance | Sodium balance | Arginine vasopressin (AVP) | Thirst
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