J Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol > Volume 11(1); 2007 > Article
J Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol 2007;11(1): 9-15. doi: https://doi.org/10.3339/jkspn.2007.11.1.9
일차성 신증후군 환아에서 소변 나트륨과 칼륨 농도를 이용한 저혈량증 평가
최정연, 박용훈
1영남대학교 의과대학 소아과학교실
2영남대학교 의과대학 소아과학교실
Evaluation of Blood Volume State Using the Quotient of Urine Sodium and Potassium Excretion in Primary Nephrotic Syndrome in Children
Jung-Youn Choi, Yong-Hoon Park
1Department of Pediatrics, Yeungnam University College of Medicine
2Department of Pediatrics, Yeungnam University College of Medicine
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Purpose : Edema is one of the cardinal features of nephrotic syndrome. Although the pathogenesis of edema is not entirely understood, it is caused by hypovolemia or hypervolemia by different mechanisms. Accordingly it is important to evaluate the volume status of patients in order to treat the edema, but it is difficult to evaluate the patient's volume status only by clinical parameters. The quotient of urine sodium and potassium excretion $U_K/(U_{Na}+U_K)$ is introduced as a more useful way to evaluate volume status. In this study we will propose the usefulness of $U_K/(U_{Na}+U_K)$ in evaluating the volume status of children with nephrotic syndrome.
Methods : Primary nephrotic syndrome patients at Yeungnam University Hospital since January 1995 to June 2005, were included in the study. We analyzed clinical parameters such as tachycardia, cardiomegaly, pleural effusion, blood chemistry and urinalysis prospectively. We defined hypovolemia when $U_K/(U_{Na}+U_K)$ exceeded 60%. Intravenous albumin and diuretics were administered to hypovolemic edematous patients. On the other hand, hypervolemic edematous patients were treated only with diuretics.
Results : There were 50 cases of primary nephrotic syndrome patients(hypervolemia: 29 vs hypovolemia: 21). There were no significant differences in clinical symptoms and laboratory findings except for FeNa While $F_eNa$ and $U_K/(U_{Na}+U_K)$ had a significant negative correlation, BUN and $U_K/(U_{Na}+U_K)$ had a significant positive correlation. Urine output after edema treatment was effective and there were no treatment-related side effects in both groups.
Conclusion : FeNa, BUN and $U_K/(U_{Na}+U_K)$ are a useful parameters for evaluating volume status of edematous nephrotic syndrome patients. We could suggest a therapeutic option for using albumin and/or diuretics according to volemic status by means of measured $U_K/(U_{Na}+UK)$.
Key words: Urine sodium and potassium excretion | Blood volume state | Edema | Nephrotic syndrome
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